I had no idea what a car hang out was until I met my most recent boyfriend. He is about ten years older than I am and I knew that we would have different things that we liked to do but he told me that he liked to go down to the local fast food joint of the week and he and a bunch of different people would bring their cars. They would park their cars and open up the hood so people could see what was under the hood and people would also see the show plates man where he would tell them what type of plate would look good on their car. They would all go in and get food to eat outside and a lot of people would stop and also have a few drinks while they were talking to one another about whatever they wanted to talk about.
Memory foam is made from polyurethane foam and it is designed to soften in reaction to body heat, this allows it to mold itself to a warm body in just a few minutes. A twin size memory foam mattress can allow two people to be very comfortable in the same bed even if they have very different requirements for their personal comfort. The shape of a memory foam mattress twin size molds quickly to the shape of both of the people who are lying on it. This type of mattress means that both can be completely comfortable while sharing the same bed. This can be a great advantage for a couple who need specific support from a mattress for their own body shape but want to continue sharing a bed.
The Advantages of a Twin Size Memory Foam Mattress
The foam of a memory foam mattress twin size returns quickly to its basic shape which means that it will stay comfortable as you move around during the night. The memory foam will adjust as you move on it to give full comfortable support as you change position during the night. The advantage of it adapting quickly means that support and comfort will be there however much you move and will not restrict your movement as some other support mattresses can. A twin memory foam mattressis an extremely comfortable type of mattress that will keep both sleeping partners comfortable in their own way and make sure that both get the rest they need.
The benefits of a twin memory foam mattress include a more supportive and comfortable sleep for both partners. The memory foam does this by reducing pressure points on the back, the neck and the limbs. This is why they have become so popular among domestic consumers. The memory foam used to be much too expensive for general domestic use but has become much cheaper in recent years allowing more people to have amemory foam mattress twinat home, you can check this foam globes guide to find the cheapest twin size mattress listed. Initially, most home users may have bought them on medical advice and they were single mattresses. A twin size memory foam mattress has the advantage of being ideal for a couple where one partner may benefit from it medically. This means that the couple does not need to get separate mattresses and both will benefit from the comfort and support of the memory foam.
Like any other twin size mattress that you can buy, a twin foam mattress can come in any number of shapes and sizes. You can also choose from a wide range of firmness depending on your preference. One thing to consider is that despite being manufactured using the same basic technology, memory foam is not a standard product. The quality and performance of a memory foam mattress can vary tremendously from mattress to mattress. It is worth, therefore, feeling the quality of the twin mattress that you are considering. Many showrooms will let you literally try different ones out by lying on them. This is a good idea to prove to yourself just how comfortable they are as well as finding the right one for you.
Cost of Twin Size Memory Foam Mattress
The twin size memory foam mattress is the answer to all your problems related to the mattress. Not like other mattresses, they do not align your body when you lie on them. Ordinary mattresses are too soft or too hard. Because of this, you can not give comfort. The memory foam mattress is made to give comfort throughout the body. It is made of “viscoelastic” that molds to the shape of the body and regain its original shape when you rise. The pressure is released, offering support to all parts of the body. You will feel relaxed once you lie on this mattress. Shops memory foam is used not only in mattresses but also pillows and quilts. You can get all this at a discount with the click of an online site. For online purchases, look for leftovers. Some sites of other companies selling goods at deep discounts. A regular memory foam mattress can cost between $ 1299 and $ 3499. Get the best mattress at the right price is the key to success. Wide range MedlinePlus Reflexion collection Sealy latex foam is made of natural material, body contouring. The latex is not only anti-microbial, anti-mite resistant bacterial and dust, but also rust-proof. This mattress is full of health benefits. Another popular choice is Tempur-Pedic memory foam mattress and Isotomic. Both companies have manufacturing mattresses that are lightweight, breathable and cause no sweat.
Buys wonderful also manufactures a complete line of bedding memory foam. Their beds are all “viscoelastic” and a popular choice for consumers. A twin memory foam mattress can be purchased online from home comfort, everyday comfort and the like. Even major mattress stores and department stores keep these mattresses for sale. The memory foam mattress has a tendency to soften with heat. At low temperatures, tends to harden. This feature of the mattress has become very popular. Although a bit expensive, people find memory foam mattress is worth the indulgence. Say goodbye to numbness with these mattresses. It improves blood circulation in the limbs and the entire body. You’ll not only sleep better but also lead a better life.
Sarah Peyton Convection Cooled 8 Inch Twin Memory Foam Mattress Review – Best For Your Kids
Your toddler might be too big for a crib already and you want him to have his own bed. If you are thinking along this line, then, consider Sarah Peyton Convection Cooled 8 Inch Twin Memory Foam Mattress as your beloved child’s first bed and he will surely approve of your choice. It has an air cooling system to make your child feeling cool and comfortable at all times. This featured item is another product by Sarah Peyton, which is a famous and leading name in making durable and comfortable mattresses. This featured item is made of a material that allows air to cool for a more comfortable sleep.
Price and Features
Purchasing it will never create a dent in your pocket because of the amazing price it has now. For a mere $151.31, you can have this product shipped to you right away. Paying this amount, instead of its usual price of $400, will give you 62% savings. This highly affordable mattress would be quite an ordinary buy but for the following features.
molds to your body
diminishes discomfort on pressure points
eliminates discomfort when changing position
does not need turning
Who is it for?
It is ideal for toddlers who are experiencing having a real bed, not a crib, for the first time. Older children will also find it comfortable. Adults can also sleep on it and still feel comfortable.
Pros and Cons
There are several benefits that can be derived from Sarah Peyton Convection Cooled 8 Inch Mattress. First, it has an air cooling system that makes it cool and maintains a comfortably low temperature even if the weather is hot. The coolness ensures one of a long and good sleep. The mattress is soft but firm to the touch and supports well the pressure points in the body, thus, preventing muscle and joint pains. Your kids are very mobile so, you are always disturbed when they try to sit on your bed or lie down for a while to be cuddled. Germs, molds and mildews cannot survive on it. This will make you feel secure with regards to the health and wellness of your kids. However, some find the ridges on its surface annoying. There are also some who complained about the smell and the nasty smell that comes with it when newly opened.
Why you should buy it
It is a wise choice and a great money saver with its reduced price at Amazon. Giving it to your child as his first bed will be a delightful experience for both of you. With this mattress, you can easily stay with him and give him a cuddle while telling him a story during bedtime. The durable material is also ideal for energetic children like yours. The guarantee on the item is a good add on and is worthy enough to be mentioned.
With Sarah Peyton Convection Cooled 8 Inch Twin Memory Foam Mattress, your kid will always feel the comfort and warmth of your love as the foam wraps him in a soft cocoon as its makes adjustment to the contours of his body. This is the best thing you can give your child.
Choosing a good mattress is not an easy task with a wide variety that there is nowadays. Most people do not consider sleeping on a good mattress as a health measure; instead, they see it as a luxury. You should consider the quality of the mattress you are about to buy so that it gives you maximum service for a long time. It should be within your budget since it does not have to be expensive to be good. Ensure that you check for the right firmness, size, material, and additional advantage.
Dynasty Mattresses Inc has produced a new and exclusive affordable Dynasty Mattress 10 Inch Twin XL Deluxe Memory Foam Mattressthat has all the qualities of a high-quality mattress. The design was originally created for an adjustable bed base. It is carefully put together using high resilience polyurethane base foam and viscoelastic memory foam. The foam is fitted with excellent foam that conforms to your body shape to reduce tossing and turning that causes fatigue. It is covered with a cotton zipper cover, which does not require a lot of effort to remove for cleaning since it unzips in four ways.
Price and features
The Dynasty Mattress 10 Inch Twin XL Deluxe Memory Foam Mattressis available in the market at affordable prices. Get one from the Amazon.com online shop at $329.00 only. It has the following product features;
Dynasty Mattress 10 Inch Twin XL Deluxe Memory Foam Mattress
It weighs about 50 pounds with measurements of 80 by 38 by 10 inches
Top quality viscoelastic memory foam with a high resilience base foam made of polyurethane
Removable four ways zipper cover that is easy to clean
Conforms to pressure to adjust to body shape ensuring maximum comfort
Who is it for?
It is vital that everybody including babies, adults, and teens to sleep on a superior quality mattress. The Dynasty Mattress 10 Inch Twin XL Deluxe Memory Foam Mattress is suitable for everybody and it comes in different sizes.
Pros and Cons
It has high-quality materials, and it is affordable with a 20 years warranty. The Dynasty Mattress 10 Inch Twin XL Deluxe Memory Foam Mattresshas technology that enables it to adjust and conform to your body shape hence maximizing comfort.
As for downsides, the mattress is vacuum sealed so it takes a while to expand to the right size and it has an odor that comes from the foam and industrial processing that goes away in a week.
Why you should buy it
Recent research has revealed that most people wake up in the morning feeling tired and fatigued because of sleeping on a poor quality mattress. Therefore it is necessary to sleep on a superior quality mattress to avoid health problems such as back pains, spine strains, and neck pains. The Dynasty Mattress 10 Inch Twin XL Deluxe Memory Foam Mattress is an exclusively superior quality mattress that will serve you for over 20 years, and it is affordable.
It is time you got a good mattress that will help you reduce aches and fatigue in the morning, ensure that you have a good night’s sleep and bright mornings with the Dynasty Mattress 10 Inch Twin XL Deluxe Memory Foam Mattress.
Scientists have completed the genome sequencing of Francisella guangzhouensis, a potentially life-threatening bacteria related to a strand used in biological warfare.
The sequencing has revealed a new branch of the genus.
The genome sequencing has distanced the China strand from Francisella tularensis, also known as rabbit fever, which was one of the seven standarized biological weapons developed before the U.S. biological warfare program ended in 1969.
While information on F.guangzhouensis is still being researched, it’s cousin F.tularensis can be fatal, causing various symptoms that are often mistake for common illness. In most cases, F.tularensis is treated with common antibiotics, according the U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention.
Researchers from the FOI–Swedish Defence Research Agency obtained a strand of the F.guangzhouensis which was collected from water in air conditioners in the southern Guangzhou province in 2008. It was stored by the Public Health England Culture Collection before being transferred for research.
They grew the strand using heart cysteine agar (HCA) and extracted the DNA for sequencing.
Prior to this research, there were two major groups, or clades, of the strand known. The group related to the deadly rabbit fever is classified under “Clade I”.
Upon successful sequencing, researchers found the similarity of F.guangzhouensis genomes and Clade I genomes was only 75.6% and 80% of genomes with Clade II.
“The phylogeny shows that F. guangzhouensis does not belong to any of the two previously known Francisellamain clades or the recently published F. endociliophora clade,” the study, Complete Genome Sequence of F. guangzhouensis type strain 08HL01032T , Isolated from Air-Conditioning Systems in China, said.
“This isolate forms a new separate branching clade in the Francisella genus.”
It was published online at the American Center for Microbiology on March 19, 2015.
Women who underwent foot-binding are experiencing higher levels of osteoperosis as they reach their 80s, but maintain the same likelihood of fragility fractures as those who avoided the archaic practice, a recent study found.
China banned foot-binding – tightly wrapping a child’s foot in order to stunt growth and produce small feet, often performed as a show of status – in 1912.
As the last generation of Chinese women who experienced foot-binding reach old age, many have managed to overcome the major physical disadvantages, a recent survey found.
Resarchers led by the Chinese University of Hong Kon surveyed 254 women aged 65-80, 174 of which had bound feet as children, in a remote region of Yunnan province.
They found that, while bound feet resulted in higher rates of osteoporosis, the impact on balance and other physical limitations were minimal.
“Results did not reveal any statistically significant differences in any categorical responses, including physical functioning, general health vitality and a physical component summary score, and number of previous fractures,” the study, Lifelong bound feet in China: a quantitative ultrasound and lifestyle questionnaire study in postmenopausal women, said.
” No impairment of body balance was found.”
The likely reason for such a low man-made impact, the study asserts, is due to a lifetime of physical activity to compensate balance.
“Implying the importance of improving or maintaining body balance in overall prevention strategies against fragility fractures,” it said.
The study was published online at BMJOpen on March 17.
A well-rested work force is the driver of successful commerce. But which occupation in China gets the best beauty rest?
Researchers from 10 U.S. and Chinese univerities set out to answer the question, collecting data from 18,316 Chinese workers of various occupations aged 18-65.
The analysis found farmers, known for their early mornings, surprisingly got the most sleep with an average of 8.22 hours each night.
On the other end of the spectrum, Civil servants were found slumbering the least with an average of 7.85 hours a night.
Applying the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), a questionaire that registers the psychological symptoms of sleep, they also determined farmers had the highest quailty of sleep.
In this area, white-collar proffessionals had the worst score in terms of quality.
Blue collar workers scored the lowest overall score when factoring age, sex, marital status, education, area, smoking, drinking, pain, and health status.
“blue collar workers are more likely to have shortened sleep duration and poor sleep quality,” the study, Sleep Duration and Quality among Different Occupations–China National Study, said.
It was published by the Public Library of Science on March 17.
Scientists start debate over China origins of modern domesticated Chickens
Scientists have refuted a recently published study that traced the first domesticated chickens to China more than 10,000 years ago, in a paper that says the data used in the first study was “overinterpreted”.
Researchers from Yunnan Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Domestic Animal and the Kunming Institute of Zoology rexamined the data used to track the origins of the domesticated chicken and determined there is too much room for error for their prediction.
The original study, published in December 2014, examined mitochondrial DNA extracted from ancient chicken bones found in the Nanzhuangtou archeological site.
Scientists led by China Agricultural University then used DNA analysis to link ancient and modern chicken DNA.
”Our results suggest that these early domesticated chickens contributed to the gene pool of modern chicken populations,” the orignal study, Early Holocene chicken domestication in northern China, said.
However, researchers from the Yunnan Labratory said the methods they used were not precise.
“They proposed that the chicken was domesticated in northern China as early as 10,000 y ago. However, a reanalysis of their data suggested that the data are overinterpreted,” the latest paper, Caveats about interpretation of ancient chicken mtDNAs from northern China, said.
Both were published online by the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.
An extensive study of Chinese high school students grade 10 and 11 found more than 80% had some degree of myopia, or nearsightedness.
Taking a random sample from nine districts in Beijing, researchers tested 4677 high school students for myopia, with 80.7% testing positive.
Among those found positive for myopia, only 40.4% reported wearing glasses on a daily basis, the study found.
Interviews with the students revealed a high prevalence of myopia linked to study time and time spent on ‘near work’ – activities that require focusing on items in close proximity.
Daily study time of more than 8 hours per day was reported by 85.5% of the students examined with 80.1% saying they had less than one hour of sporting activity per day.
Lack of rests between study sessions was another major contributor. Just over half reported proactively taking a rest during study sessions.
“Since the competition for seats at the university is high, the examination for entrance into the university is difficult and the students intensively prepare,” the study said.
“The high-school students have thus a high load of prolonged near-work during the high-school period during which little time is left for outdoor activities.”
Females aged 16 to 18 had the highest percentage and most severe cases of near-sightedness between the two sexes.
Researchers from Capital Medical University in Beijing, with the help of the Center for Disease Control, also determined those from a high-income background or attending key schools resulted in more frequent, more severe cases of nearsightedness.
Genetically, Han students with parents who exhibit myopia were the most likely.
The study aimed to better quantify and understand the level of nearsightedness among Chinese students.
“With this young myopic generation getting older, myopia as cause for visual impairment and blindness may further increase in importance,” the study, Prevalence and Associated Factors of Myopia in High-School Students in Beijing, said.
“Future studies may address whether active rests during studying with looking into the distance are preventive against myopia development or progression.”
It was published online at PLOS ONE on March 24.
Traditional Chinese Medicine used with insulin to improve type 2 diabetes treatment
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) combined with standard insulin therapy proved far more efficient in treating type 2 Diabetes , a new study reports.
A decade ago, type 2 diabetes, which makes up 90% of diabetes cases worldwide, was a rare occurence in China. But the country’s rise in wealth has been accompanied by an increase of obesity, the primary cause of type 2.
By 2010, China overtook India as the country with the fastest growing incidents of diabetes, with 92.4 million adults affected, according to the International Diabetes Federation.
Scientists from the Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine tracked treatment of 219 Chinese diabetes patients, 110 who were given standar insulin therapy and 109 who were treated with TCM and insulin.
After 12 weeks of treatment, those who received dual therapy using Shen-Qi-Formula (SQF), a long-used TCM remedy, had substantially decreased fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels – two key indicators of controlled type 2 diabetes.
“Moreover, 12-weeks of treatment by SQF and insulin improved the levels of GLP-1, oxidative stress, blood lipids, coagulation function and body weight,” the study said.
Those treated with dual therapy also saw a decrease in body weight, with the average dropping from 91.6 kg to 88.3 kg . The average body weight for patients treated with just insulin increased from 91.2 kg to 92.1.
Shen-Qi Formula is made from ginseng, kudzu vine root (Huang Qi), rehmannia, Chinese yam, dogwood, radix trichosanthis, salvia, and cooked rhubarb.
Two of its main ingredients – ginseng and kudzu vine root – have studeid extensively for their effects on type 2 diabetes.
“The results from our study indicated that the combination therapy of SQF and insulin significantly improved the clinical outcome of type 2 diabetes mellitus, compared to the insulin monotherapy,” the study said.
Insulin combined with Chinese medicine improving glycemic outcome through multiple pathways in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus was published by the Journal of Diabetes Investigation online on March 16.
Two biomass power generators were fired up as the country’s first dual biomass/solar power plant began operation in Zhejiang province on Thursday.
The Zhejiang Longquan Biomass Power Plant is expected to produce 162 million kilowatt-hours of electricity annually by consuming 250,000 tons of biomass such as saw dust, straw and other agricultural waste, Xinhua News Agency reported.
The plant’s solar power, which will begin construction this month and begin operation in four months, is expected to produce 1.44 megawatts.
With the solar power alone, the plant is expected to match power production equivalent of burning 430 tons of coal.
The new power plant is also expected to provide an income boost for rural farmers selling their biowaste, which would otherwise be discarded or burned.
One of the plants first customers, a farmer from Longquan City, Zhejiang, sold a truck full of saw dust and earned 1,500 yuan ($242 U.S. dollars).
Scientists estimate that if China recycled all of its biomass, it could offset coal usage by as much as 656 million tons of coal per year.
9.3% more land needed to feed large Chinese cities by 2030
Doubling the pace of expansion for China’s economy is its population’s consumption of meat, dairy and other land-intensive foods.
Over the course of 30 years, China consumption of land and resource intensive foods has quadrupled, transforming from a country where meat was considered a luxury to the largest consumer of it in the world.
In 2012, China consumed 71 million tons of meat per year, 25% the world’s total and double that of the United States, according to a report by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA).
In a recent report, scientists from Renmin University in Beijing and Yale University forecast a 9.3% increase in the already strained agricultural land resources of large cities by 2030 if the trend continues.
Factoring in production of oil and fat products, meat, eggs, aquatic products, dairy, and liquor they projected per capita land demand for food production in large cities would increase from 1402m² in 2010 to 1533 by 2030.
For small and medium-sized cities, where slower wage growth has stunted the growth of land-intensive food, they projected an increase of 5.3%, from 1192 to 1255 m² per capita.
“Our results imply that urban economic development can significantly affect the final outcomes of land requirements for food production,” the study, Urban economic development, changes in food consumption patterns and land requirements for food production in China, said.
“Urban economic development is expected to accelerate the rate of change towards an affluent diet, which can lead to much higher future land requirements.”
It was published in the China Agriculture Ecnomic Review.
Paleontologists have long believed a huge swathe of well-preserved dinosaur fossils in China’s northeastern Yixian Formation were the result of a single, violent volcanic event that killed thousands of dinosaurs more than 100 million years ago.
The theoretical occurrence was given the title “China’s Pompeii” due to its seeming similarity to the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD.
But a recent study examining the sediment in the area has deteremined the large fossil deposits were the result of several floods rather than a single volcanic event.
Scientists from the University of Bristol, with cooperation from several UK universities, collected samples and used previous studies to determine the volcanic sediment and fossils in the area were likely deposited by water in multiple events.
“Fossils of the Lujiatun Unit occur in several horizons of volcaniclastic sediments that represent multiple depositional events,” the study,The Chinese Pompeii? Death and destruction of dinosaurs in the Early Cretaceous of Lujiatun, NE China, said.
“Petrological analysis shows that the fossil-bearing sediments were remobilised and deposited by water.”
“The Lujiatun dinosaurs and other fossils were therefore not killed by a single airborne volcanic ash, but in multiple flood events with a high load of volcaniclastic debris.”
It was published online by Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology on March 28.
Researchers have identified the fungus causing black lesions and rotting roots for Inner Mongolia’s sugar beet harvest as Rhizoctonia solani AG4-HG-I.
In the first report on the spread of the fungus, scientists from Inner Mongolia Agricultural University estimated as much as 10% of the region’s crop was infected.
Collecting samples from infected plants, they incubated the fungus before testing and identifying it as Rhizoctonia solani.
R.Solani is one of the more versatile and destructive plant diseases affecting commercial crops. It can reside in soil for years and, in addition to rotting the plant, destroys the ability of new seeds to germinate.
It can reduce yields by as much as 25-100% in infected crops.
“To our knowledge, this is the first report of R. solani AG4-HG-I on sugar beets in China,” the study, First Report of Rhizoctonia solani AG4-HG-I Infecting Sugar Beet in China, said.
Inner Mongolia is one of China’s largest sugar beet producing regions, with 95% of the country’s production in the northeast.
Previous cases of a similar infection were identified in plants grown in Xinjiang Autonomous Region, but this is the first study of this strand of the fungus.
The study was published by the The American Phytopathological Society in April.
Smokers getting younger in Shanghai schools
While China – the largest producer and consumer of cigarettes in the world – appears to be pushing back against the habit, the next generation of smokers is getting younger, according to a recent study.
Using the Chinese-language version of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey, 26,675 students were questioned on their attitude toward tobacco, whether they smoked and if they would ever try cigarettes.
With questions like “Do you think smokers are more elegant?” and “Do you think smokers are more popular?”, researchers aimed at finding out not only how many children had experimented with or regularly smoke cigarettes, but also to determine their future intentions to smoke.
The survey found 6.4% of those under the age of 15 had already experimented with cigarettes, though only 1% of that age range described themselves as “current smokers”, lower than the global average for developing countries but higher than previous studies.
“There is an increase of approximate 80,000 to 90,000 new smokers among Chinese adolescents aged 12–17 years per day and nearly 11–12 million adolescents experimented with smoking in the past month,” the study said.
“More alarming is that the average age of smoking onset is decreasing.”
Not surprisingly, men outnumbered the regular female smokers aged 13-18 with 5% and 1.4% respectively.
When comparing results for junior high, high school and vocational students, vocational schools had the highest level of smokers, with 29.2% experimenting with cigarettes and 13.5% smoking regularly. By comparison, only 12.4% of high schoolers had tried smoking and 2.2% reported regularly use.
“Intentions to smoke—thoughts developed before smoking behavior about experimenting with smoking—are worth paying special attention to in adolescent smoking,” the study, Personality, Perceived Environment, and Behavior Systems Related to Future Smoking Intentions among Youths: An Application of Problem-Behavior Theory in Shanghai, China, said.
“In the study, the perceived environment system was strongly associated with future smoking intentions among youths and peer smoking largely defined intentions to smoke.”
Conducted by researchers at the School of Public Health at Shanghai Jiao Tong University, the study was published online by PLOS ONE on March 31.
China must urgently invest more in updating sewage sludge treatment to avoid huge environmental costs in the future, a recently published analysis said.
The country is expected to produce 34 million metric tons of sewage sludge in 2015, an increase of 4 million tons from 2012.
“Historically, over 80% of the sludge has not been treated and disposed of effectively and safely,” researchers from the State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse at Tongji University wrote in their analysis.
Part the difficulty in efficiently disposing of the sludge is China’s practice of mixing municipal and industrial wastewater. By combining the two, heavy metals from industry such as Zinc, Chromium and Lead are introduced to the sludge, limiting disposal options.
In developed countries, sewage sludge is often used to help condition soil for farming. But introducing water laden with toxic metals into the soil could poison the land, making it unusable for farming.
China also combines municipal wastewater with rainwater, which introduces a disproportionate level of inorganic material, elminating treatment options such as composting, the paper said.
“The separate treatment of municipal wastewater, rainwater, and industrial wastewater should be considered to eliminate the problem of sewage sludge treatment and disposal,” the study, Dilemma of Sewage Sludge Treatment and Disposal in China, said.
“Even if this proposal were to be adopted, sludge treatment and disposal would remain a challenge.”
Alternative methods such as anaerobic digestion – introducing microorganisms to help break the waste down into methane and other biogases – have been funded and explored, but only a fraction of the facilities capable are in operation.
In 2013, there were 2600 sludge treatment centers. Of those, only 60 used anaerobic digestion and of those, only 10-30 were actually operational, “resulting in wasted infrastructure and treatment facilities”.
Part of the problem stems from funding. Much of the money towards treating waste goes to wastewater, which receives $68.8 billion annually versus the $5.6 billion going toward sewage sludge treatment.
“More investment in sludge treatment and disposal is urgently needed in China,” it said.
“If not, the investment in wastewater treatment could be in vain as the pollutants would re-enter the environment through sewage sludge.”
The opinion analysis was published Environmental Science and Technology on April 6.
China’s dietary staple is likely the primary source of inorganic mercury exposure in Guizhou province, even for those living in close proximity to mercury (Hg) mines, a recent study found.
While rice has long been established as one of the major sources of mercury for residents in Guizhou, little research has been done for those living in high-risk areas such as near Hg mines.
Seeking to better understand the risk of exposure, scientists from State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry with the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences tested urinary mercury levels of residents living within 3km of waste heaps from the Wanshan Hg mining area in Guizhou.
Most suprisingly, they found that dietary intake, rather than fumes from the mine was still the main source of toxic exposure to Hg.
“By calculation of Probable Daily Intake from different routes, we found that dietary intake is the main pathway of IHg exposure for the local population, rather than inhalation of Hg vapor,” the study, Human inorganic mercury exposure, renal effects and possible pathways in Wanshan mercury mining area, China, said.
“It demonstrated a gradient of (urinary mercury) concentrations with the distance from the pollution sources,” the study said.
Testing the effects of exposure to mercury on eye sight, they found those in the area had impaired retinal function.
The study was published online by Environmental Research journal on April 9.
Food allergies compared among SE Chinese and Russian children
Like many aspects of child development, environment plays a huge role in which foods children have an adverse reaction to.
A recent study tested more than 2000 children aged 7-10 in an attempt to find how food sensitivities differ among children in the West Siberian city of Tomsk, south eastern China’s Guangdong province, rural Shaoguan city and Hong Kong.
“Compared to Europe, little is known about sensitization to food and inhalant sources in Russia and China,” the study said.
Scientists from 7 universities, including the Chinese University of Hong Kong and the Imperial College of London, found local diet and environment played a huge role in dictating allergies.
Shrimp and Crab were the most common sensitivities for Chinese children among the 27 foods and 8 inhalants tested, with 7-25% and 4-9% respectively of children showing reactions to the two foods.
Despite a heavy seafood diet, Hong Kong children showed the most sensitivity to milk at 17% and to egg at 15%.
In Tomsk, Hazelnuts and fruits – both common in the Russian diet – were the most prevalent allergens, with both around 6%. In Guangzhou, allergies to hazelnuts were virtually non-existant, the study said.
When testing inhalants, Chinese children showed an unexpectantly high sensitivity to house dust mites (HDM), with an overall average of ~39%.
In Hong Kong, a staggering 79% showed sensitivty to HDM, compared to just 13% in Tomsk.
“Sensitization profiles in Tomsk are dominated by birch pollen cross-reactivity, similar to what is common in Central and Northern Europe,” the study, Food sensitisation profiles in school-aged children from China and Russia, said.
“In contrast, sensitization to HDM and sea foods dominated the picture in China.”
“Whether house dust mite sensitization is (partly) at the basis of the high prevalence of seafood sensitization (e.g. via Der p 10/tropomyosin) or whether it is the seafood-rich diet, is currently under investigation.”
It was published in Clinical and Translational Allergy 2015 on March 30.
With a wall of wind and sand enveloping Beijing on Wednesday, many stranded commuters were left seeking refuge in shops and underground subway stations. But is the air any safer in the subway?
According to a recent report examining the microclimate of Shanghai’s subway system, only a small percentage of pollution makes its way underground.
Researchers from the State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process monitored temperature, humidity and PM 1, 2.5, 10 particles of the subway tunnel in real time.
They found all particulates of air pollution were significantly lower than aboveground levels.
“Air quality in the tunnel was comparatively good, with 76% of PM2.5 and 91% of PM10 reaching relative standards,” the study said.
The average temperature when the data was collected in mid-November hovered at a comfortable 29.4 degrees celcius, while humidity was observed at 29.6%.
They also recorded a fluctuation in air pollution during peak and off-peak hours, something they partially attribute to the operation of more trains.
“This phenomenon might result from plenty of coarse particles generated by mechanical grinding in the process of train driving,” the study, Characterization of PM and Microclimate in a Shanghai Subway Tunnel, China, said.
As for the best day of the week to travel to avoid air pollution – Wednesdays apparently recorded the overall best environment.
Fridays, with a rush of people travelling throughout the city for the weekend, had the worse recorded particulate levels, followed by Thursday, Monday and Tuesday.
The study was published in Procedia Engineering and became available online on April 9.
Household mosquito repellant almost doubles chance of childhood leukemia in China
A study of childhood acute leukemia (AL) patients in Shanghai has found household mosquito repellants can potentially double the odds of contracting the cancer.
Tracking 248 newly diagnosed cases of acute leukemia (AL) and using 111 controls, researchers from the Department of Environmental Health at Shanghai’s Jiao Tong University assessed levels of 5 common household pesticides for the children.
From the data collected, they determined children exposed to household mosquito repellant had almost twice risk for AL, with a 1.9:1 odds ratio.
“The household use of mosquito repellent was significantly associated with an increased risk of childhood AL,” the study said.
Using urine samples, they tested for common pesticide ingredients dimethyl phosphate (DMP), diethyl phosphate (DEP), dimethyl thiophosphate (DMTP), diethyl thiophosphate (DETP), and diethyl dithiophosphate (DEDTP).
Children suffering from AL showed higher urine concentrations for all 5 chemicals.
Measuring DMP, known to be potentially harmful on the brain and nervous system, child AL patients were found with 13.2 micrograms per gram compared with just 3.6 for non-AL patients.
For DMTP, the results showed 31.3 micrograms/g for AL patients, versus 13.3 for non-patients.
“Childhood acute leukemia (AL) is the most common malignant tumor in children, but its etiology remains largely unknown,” the study,Household pesticide exposure and the risk of childhood acute leukemia in Shanghai, China, said.
“Our findings support the notion that the household use of pesticides may play a role in the etiology of childhood AL and provide some evidence to warrant further investigation of the link between household pesticide exposures and childhood AL in Shanghai.”
It was published in the Environmental Science and Pollution journal in April, 2015.
Those who believe big city living can be stressful have never visited the rural Shilin Yi Autonomous County, where China’s Yi minority were recently recorded with some of the nation’s highest levels of hypertension.
In an attempt to better understand the condition among rural and minority populations, researchers from top hospitals in Kunming and Nanjing administered physicals to 2208 Yi seniors.
Though initially testing for eye disorders, the researchers soon found 38.6% of adults over 50 were suffering from hypertension, or high blood pressure, in the minority region located in southwestern Yunnan province.
Women were the most likely to suffer from hypertension with 39.4% positive, significantly higher than the national average of 28%.
With many in the fertile region working as farmers, few of the adults tested were obese, a common cause of high blood pressure, the study said.
Instead, they believe diet and lifestyle were responsible for the high rates.
Their preference for eating Rubing , a firm, fatty cheesed produced from goat’s milk is believed to be a large contributor to higher hypertension rates among the Yi minority versus other minorities in the region.
A diet high in preserved foods, which contain large amounts of sodium, also contributed to the high hypertension levels.
Of those that suffer from the condition, less than a quarter, 24.2%, were aware of it, the study found.
“There is an urgent need to develop a hypertension education program to coordinate efforts for the detection, prevention, and treatment of hypertension in the Yi ethnic communities,” the study, Prevalence, awareness, medication, control, and risk factors associated with hypertension in Yi ethnic group aged 50 years and over in rural China: the Yunnan minority eye study, said.
It was published by BMC Public Health on April 15.
Animal behavior researchers have discovered that unplanned mobs among Tibetan Macaques are often led by a hierarchy of strong females.
Zoologists from Central Washington University observed 20 adult Tibetan Macaques at Mt. Huangshan in Anhui province over the course of two months.
During that time they witnessed 128 collective movements, events outside the social norm such as creating a spontaneous crowd or heightened emotions among a group; for humans, behaviors such as riots or mass buying.
An unexpectedly large number of the observed collective movement were led by the highest-ranking female, followed by young females, their report said.
The Tibetan Macaque is one of the largest monkeys found in Asia. They are known for their complex social structure and gender-based hierarchy.
Outside of such phenomena, larger Alpha males tend to have better access to resources. However, clustering of social circles among the group tended to center around different female Macaques, the report said.
“Certain individuals tend to move with one female or the other,” the report, Leadership in the Collective Movements of Tibetan Macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Mt. Huangshan, China, said.
The study was presented during the Symposium Of University Research and Creative Expression (SOURCE) on May 5.
Chinese seniors unable to complete daily chores more likely to commit suicide
Disabled Chinese elders unable to perform daily tasks such as cooking and cleaning are three times more likely to commit suicide, a recent study has found.
While tradition dictates that Chinese children should take care of their aging parents, lack of pensions and the one-child policy have placed impossible expectations for children to provide both care and finances for parents.
Compounded by a lack of proffessional care facilities, senior citizens are increasingly being left to tend to themselves in daily life.
A study by the Department of Health Services Management at Second Military Medical University investigated daily life and disability as it relates to suicide for 8399 residents aged 60 or more across 15 communities in Shanghai .
They found the suicide rate among those observed was .75% and was often pre-empted by disability in performing daily tasks.
Using the Lawton instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) scale to determine different levels of disability for the sample, they found seniors unable to use public transport, prepare meals, go shopping, perform housekeeping or do laundry were almost three times more likely to commit suicide.
“The presence of at least one such disability was associated with an almost threefold increase in the attempted suicide rate,” it said.
Those unable to perform five or more of the tasks were five times more likely.
“Specific IADL disabilities, such as preparing meals or dealing with medical care, may be significant predictive factors for risk of suicidal attempts among the elderly,” the study,Does disability predict attempted suicide in the elderly? A community-based study of elderly residents in Shanghai, China, said.
“Therefore, elderly people with certain disabilities should be considered for suicide prevention interventions and should be supported in IADL as much as possible.”
A survey of more than 1,400 rural residents across China found 88% of participants believed they could become infected with Hepatitis B by sharing a meal with an infected individual.
Interviewing people in 72 villages located across Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, Chongqing and Qinghai in China, researchers from Tongji Medical University in Wuhan led the study to gauge health education outside of China’s big cities. Among the participants, 69.66% understood the health risks involved with second-hand cigarette smoke and 62% knew the correlation between salt and high blood pressure.
However, only 29% believed it was harmful to eat fruit picked from the ground without properly washing it.
Researchers selected 10 to 20 people from each village, all of varying age, education and income. 69% of participants made less than 22,000 yuan per year ($3,500 USD)
Surprisingly, lower income rural residents were more likely to understand health risks than those from rich families.
Those with high levels of education and those who lived within 1 km of the nearest doctor were the most knowledgeable about health issues, the study said.
For most respondents, doctor were the primary source of information on health issues, while more than half also received information from television, newspapers and magazines.
“Health knowledge awareness of rural residents is quite low and how they receive health knowledge is simple and traditional,” the study, titled Analysis of awareness of health knowledge among rural residents in Western China, said.
“In the process of health education, different means of education should be adopted for different groups.”
It was published online at Bio Med Center in January, 2015.
Rain reduces speed of Beijing’s expressway traffic by 17 percent
Moderate to heavy rain during peak hours reduces the traffic speed of Beijing expressways by 17.3%, a recent study by the US-based Transportation Research Board found.
Comparing real-time weather data with car travel speeds, researchers were able to determine the impact of moderate rains for night time and peak hour traffic speeds.
They found moderate or greater rains at night had a lesser impact, slowing traffic speeds by 8.8% on expressways and 4% for major traffic arteries.
The purpose of the study was to better predict and adapt to the weather effects on congestion in order to better project traffic patterns.
The data in the study, Impact of Rainfall on Travel Speed on Urban Roads In Beijing, China, was first presented at the Transportation Research Board 94th Annual Meeting in the United States in January before being published online in March.
Two reports examining data from 267,400 female textile workers over the course of 17-years offer positive news regarding occupational cancer risk.
The first study in the research series, led by University of Washington in Seattle, looked at stomach and esophageal cancer risk associated with exposure to synthetic fiber dust and endotoxins found in textile factories.
Using a control group and tracking the workers from 1989 to 2006, they found their was a small increase in the cases of stomach cancer among those exposed to synthetic fibers.
Similarly, there was increased risk in stomach cancer for those exposed to endotoxins, but again the correlation was very close to zero, the study, Occupational exposures and risk of stomach and esophageal cancers: Update of a cohort of female textile workers in Shanghai, China, found.
“Our findings demonstrate that long duration of synthetic fiber dust exposure can increase stomach cancer risk in women, but provide limited support for associations with other textile industry exposures,” it said.
Using the same data, the researchers published a second study to confirm or disprove the theory that working night shifts can increase lung cancer risk.
The association between night shifts and cancer was first made by the International Agency for Research on Cancer in 2007 when they published a theory that speculated working in shifts that disrupt natural sleep rhythms can act as a carcinogen in humans due to altered melatonin levels.
But the University of Washington’s research, Night shift work and lung cancer risk among female textile workers in Shanghai, China, found quite the opposite.
Even given 10-year and 20-year lag times, the statistics from both the test group and the control group were almost identical, with a slightly lower lung cancer rate among women working the night shift.
“Contrary to the initial hypothesis, rotating nighttime shift work appears to be associated with a relatively reduced lung cancer risk although the magnitude of the effect was modest and not statistically significant,” the study said.
The first study was published in the American Journal of Industrial Medicine on Jan 21st and the second was published in Occupational and Environmental Hygiene on January 23rd.
With China set to overcome the US as the largest online gaming market, a group of Korean scientists set out to answer the question – is addiction to internet gaming in China a biomedical sickness or just a bad habit?
Any given Chinese city is rife with internet cafes filled with gamers, usually young males in their late teens or 20s, who spend hours stuffed in dark, smoke-filled rooms playing games like World of Warcraft, League of Legends or one of thousands of Chinese titles.
Reports about people dying after 3 to 4 day gaming marathons have become grimly commonplace in Chinese headlines. In late January, a teen cut off his own hand in order to ‘cure’ his internet addiction
While many agree that internet gaming addiction can be a problem, very little research exists to define, diagnosis or properly treat potentially life-threatening cases.
Internet gaming disorder was listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), the widely-accepted authority on mental disorders, for the first time in 2013, with the authors concluding it was a “condition for further study”.
Heading the call, researchers from the Sociology Department at Ewha Womans University in Seoul took the first step toward the question in China – is it a mental disorder or simple a societal problem?
Interviewing gamers and collecting related research, the team etched an outline of their participants “social existence” and compared it to the DSM definition of mental disorder.
The study concluded internet gaming addiction does not fully meet the qualifications of a mental disorder, but instead rests on the individual.
“We discover not a clearly understood mental disorder called ‘Internet Gaming Disorder’ but more so an issue of social deviance,” the study, “Internet Gaming Disorder” in China Biomedical Sickness or Sociological Badness?, said.
It was published online at Sage Journals in January 27.
China Electronics Technology Group Corp. (CETC) has begun production on reflection panels for the world’s largest and most sensitive radio telescope, the company announced on Saturday.
They expect to complete the first of 4,450 panels for the Five-hundred meter Aperature Spherical Telescope (FAST) by May.
Beginning construction in Guizhou Province in 2011, the telescope will be the largest of its kind when it is finished in 2016.
It will be twice as sensitive as the Arecibo Observatory, currently the world’s largest single-aperature telecsope, operated by the United States in Puerto Rico, Zheng Yuanpeng, a CETC engineer in charge of producing the panels, told official Chinese media.
Arecibo Observatory is just over 300 meters across and is used in radio astronomy, aeronomy, and radar astronomy research.
China’s FAST project, which will have similar functions, will cost around 109 million U.S. dollars.
30% of heroin users in China diagnosed with additional mental disorders
China’s recent crackdown on drugs has revealed a nationwide epidemic that has been bubbling under the surface for years.
Every week, the country sees stories on drug busts where huge amounts, sometimes tons, of Heroin or crystal meth have been seized.
As authorities quell the problem of distribution, psychologists are examining the causes behind the country’s widespread drug use.
In a recent study, researchers from Second Xiangya Hospital at Central South University in cooperation with the Yale School of Medicine interviewed more than 1000 heroin addicts at three rehab centers in Changsha, China to determine if their substance abuse had any link to other disorders.
They found 29.6% of participants had been diagnosed with some form of life-long mental health disorder and 19.5 had experienced symptoms in the previous month.
The most common diagnosis were Antisocial (40.7%) and Borderline (22.6%) Personality Disorders. 57.8% of the heroin addicts were found to have problems abusing other substances as well.
Recruiting participants from two clinics where patients were required to be there by law or other compulsory means and one voluntary clinic, the study examined the socio-economic status of those being treated for heroin addiction.
Females were found to be of lower socio-economic status than their male counterparts in compulsory clinics.
Males in compulsory clinics were much more likely to have additional disorders, whether mental or substance, and were from a lower socio-economic status than men in volunteer clinics.
“The study findings suggest an urgent need to expand and improve diagnostic and treatment capabilities in compulsory rehabilitation settings in China,” the study said.
For most developed countries, polio is considered a virus of the past, eliminated in the years following the breakthrough vaccine discovered by Jonas Stalk in 1952.
China was thought to have been rid of the paralyzing disease in 2000, when they were officially listed as polio-free.
But a 2011 outbreak of a wild strand of the virus in Xinjiang Zhuang Uyghur Autonomous Region in the country’s far west left some observers questioning just how fully it was eradicated. Prior to that, China hadn’t seen an outbreak since 1994.
After years of examining the incident, researchers from China’s Center for Disease Control have released a report tracing the origins of the outbreak, in which 21 people were infected with wild polio and 23 additional cases were found clinically comparable to polio, to Pakistan.
Surprisingly, adults accounted for more than 50% of the cases, with children under the age of 5 being the second largest but most susceptible group. There was only 1 case of unconfirmed polio for those aged 5-14 years old.
The researchers blame part of the 2011 incident on lack on immunizations in the region.
A study conducted in the capital and northern part of Xinjiang in 2010 found 95% of the population under 15 years old were properly vaccinated. But in the south, which shares a border with Pakistan – one of the few places still battling the virus – cultural and geographical factors bar proper immunization practices, they said.
“In southern Xinjiang, most of habitants are Uyghur ethnicity, some of whom have fears about vaccine safety or adhere to religious beliefs, which reject immunizations,” the study, An outbreak following importation of wild poliovirus in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China, 2011, said.
“Some children who live in poor and remote villages are hard to reach for immunization due to transit inaccessibility.”
Following the incident, five rounds of immunization maintenance were initiated between 2011 and 2012 and are effectively thought to have culled the strand.
Still, the outbreak stands as proof that, until the virus is fully destroyed, nowhere is fully protected.
“Until WPV transmission is globally eradicated, the risk of WPV importation exists even in countries which have been certified as polio-free,” the study said.
“Therefore, high coverage of routine immunization should be maintained in children until WPV transmission is globally eradicated.”
It was published online at Bio Med Central in January.
It’s not an easy time to be a farmer in north China.
Over-exploitation, water shortages and bleak profits make toiling the land an excercise in frustration on the North China Plain.
Researchers examining the impact of climate change in the area say things are going to get worse before they get better, but farmers are adapting.
Following temperature and precipitation records for three agricultural cities over the course of three decades, teams from China Agricultural University, the Ministry of Agriculture and Ohio State University analyzed the impact of climate change on the North China Plain and how this has affected farming in the region.
The study found temperatures steadily rising.
Between 1981 and 2011, temperatures rose by around a half a degree celcius per decade in Luancheng (0.57 C increase) , Huanghua (0.47) and Feixiang (0.44) cities, with the biggest gaps during the winter wheat growing season. There was no average increase in precipitation.
Shifting temperatures have the biggest impact on crop cycles, as certain plants will only thrive in certain climates. A warmer winter season has pushed farmers to change the normal planting schedule and seed later in the season – shortening the grow period and ultimately reducing crop production, according to the research.
To cope with water shortage, many are forced to invest in expensive irrigation equipment.
The result is a virtual standstill in long-term agricultural development for the region.
“Trade-offs between crop production, water resource conservation, and intensive agricultural inputs will inhibit sustainable agricultural development in the North China Plain,” the study, Challenges and adaptations of farming to climate change in the North China Plain, concludes.
Climate change and the need to transform the agricultural sector are heavy on the agenda for China.
“The No. 1 Document”, a government plan published at the beginning of February, recognized the environmental woes faced by farmers and ensured subsidies to enable modernization, among other measures.
Modernizing techniques and adapting to the new climate are the only real options for farmers on the North China Plain to move forward, the research said.
“Innovative technologies, such as climate-smart agriculture, will play important roles in balancing food security and resources use, enhancing water use efficiency and reducing C emissions in the NCP,” it read.
It was published in the Climatic Change journal on February 4.
Children of migrant workers with visual impairments that require glasses in Shanghai often go without, a study of almost 10,000 children at Shanghai schools found.
Researchers from the Shanghai Eye Disease Prevention and Treatment Center, collected a random sample of 9,512 children aged between 9-12 from 11 Shanghai schools and tested their vision.
The children all came from migrant parents, adults who move from rural areas in China to large cities like Shanghai seeking better work opportunities and higher pay.
They are often of a lower socio-economic bracket and, because of their migrant status, do not gain many social benefits which are reserved only for a city’s residents. In many cases, this includes healthcare.
Out of the migrant children tested, only 15.5% of those requiring corrective lenses had them, with 85% of those found with vision problems not having access to glasses.
Of those who had glasses – 26.5% were wearing the wrong prescription.
Problems with the refractive lens was the most prevalent, making up 89.48% of the cases found.
Interestingly, the study concluded that migrant children were at the lowest risk for developing near-sightedness, a condition referred to as myopia.
Chances of developing myopia increase with outdoor activities and intensive study sessions.
Because migrant children live in cities where there is less open space for outdoor activities, they are less-likely to develop the disorder than their rural counterparts. And with migrant workers living on low income, they often cannot afford tutors for their children – a common practice among Shanghai’s middle-class.
“As a result, the children of migrant workers study less intensely, which prevents and slows the development of myopia, and leads to a lower rate of visual impairment,” the study said.
It’s the first time research in China has collected data on this specific group. The scientists aimed were to offer information that would help organizations prioritize high risk groups.
“Accurate information on the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in children may help health organizations prioritize resources and develop appropriate policies on human resources and infrastructure,” the study, Prevalence and causes of visual impairment and rate of wearing spectacles in schools for children of migrant workers in Shanghai, China, said.
“Such information may also facilitate development of screening programs to identify people at an increased risk for eye diseases.”